Modern agriculture refers to the use of advanced technology and scientific methods to improve crop yields, reduce costs, and increase efficiency in farming operations. It is characterized by the integration of various technologies such as precision farming, biotechnology, and automation.
Precision agriculture uses technology such as GPS, drones, and sensors to map and monitor crop growth and soil conditions. This information can be used to optimize planting, fertilizing, and harvesting, which can increase yields and reduce costs.
Modern agriculture has had a significant impact on Indian farmers, both positive and negative.
One of the positive impacts has been increased productivity and yield. According to data from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the average cereal yield in India increased from 1.3 metric tons per hectare in 1961 to 2.6 metric tons per hectare in 2017.
This increase in productivity has been driven by the adoption of modern farming techniques and technologies, such as the use of high-yielding variety seeds, irrigation systems, and mechanization.
Another positive impact of modern agriculture has been improved access to markets and better prices for agricultural products. India has seen a steady increase in the value of agricultural exports, from $9.8 billion in 2001-02 to $39.7 billion in 2018-19. T
his has been facilitated by improved transportation and logistics infrastructure, as well as increased access to global markets through trade agreements.
However, modern agriculture has also had negative impacts on Indian farmers. One of the main concerns is the increased use of fertilizers and pesticides, which has led to higher crop yields but also potential negative impacts on the environment.
Data from the Central Pollution Control Board of India shows that the use of chemical fertilizers has increased from 5.5 million tons in 1990-91 to 30.2 million tons in 2016-17. Similarly, the use of pesticides has increased from 11,000 tons in 1990-91 to 71,000 tons in 2016-17.
Another negative impact has been the displacement of traditional farming practices due to greater mechanization of farming.
Data from the National Sample Survey Office of India shows that the proportion of farmers using tractors increased from 10% in 1990-91 to 26% in 2012-13. This has led to increased labor productivity but also displacement of traditional farming practices.
Modern agriculture also includes the use of sustainable farming practices that aim to reduce the environmental impact of farming. This includes practices such as conservation agriculture, no-till farming, and regenerative agriculture.
Overall, modern agriculture aims to increase crop yields and efficiency while reducing costs and environmental impact. The integration of technology and scientific methods can help farmers to make more informed decisions, increase crop yields and reduce costs.
Impacts of Modern Agriculture on India Farmers –
- Increased productivity and yield through the use of modern farming techniques and technologies.
- Improved access to markets and better prices for agricultural products.
- Greater use of irrigation and other water management techniques, leading to more efficient use of resources.
- Increased use of fertilizers and pesticides, leading to higher crop yields but also potential negative impacts on the environment.
- Greater mechanization of farming, leading to increased labor productivity but also displacement of traditional farming practices.
- Development of genetically modified crops, leading to increased resistance to pests and diseases but also potential negative impacts on biodiversity.
- Increased use of monoculture farming, leading to greater efficiency but also potential negative impacts on soil health and biodiversity.
- More intensive use of land, leading to increased pressure on natural resources and potential loss of biodiversity.
- Greater dependence on external inputs such as seeds, fertilizers, and pesticides, leading to increased costs for farmers and potential negative impacts on food security.
- Increased competition from imported agricultural products, leading to potential negative impacts on domestic farmers and rural communities.